TEST CATALOG ORDERING & RESULTS SPECIMEN HANDLING CUSTOMER SERVICE EDUCATION & INSIGHTS
Test Catalog

Test ID: UBE3Z    
UBE3A Gene, Full Gene Analysis, Varies

Useful For Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Confirmation of a diagnosis of Angelman syndrome in patients who have previously tested negative by methylation analysis

Genetics Test Information Provides information that may help with selection of the correct genetic test or proper submission of the test request

Testing includes full gene sequencing of the UBE3A gene

Testing Algorithm Delineates situations when tests are added to the initial order. This includes reflex and additional tests.

If skin biopsy is received, fibroblast culture will be added and charged separately.

 

See Prader-Willi and Angelman Syndromes: Laboratory Approach to Diagnosis in Special Instructions.

Clinical Information Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test

Angelman syndrome (AS) is characterized by significant developmental delay and mental retardation, ataxia, jerky arm movements, unprovoked laughter, seizures, and virtual absence of speech. AS has several known genetic causes.

 

About 65% to 80% of affected individuals have a de novo deletion of essentially the same region of chromosome 15 detected for Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS): 15q11.2-13. The deletion can often be identified by high-resolution chromosome analysis in conjunction with FISH analysis. Molecular testing has shown that the AS deletion occurs only on the copy of chromosome 15 inherited from the mother. In about 5% of patients with AS, the affected individuals have inherited 2 copies of chromosome 15 from their father (paternal uniparental disomy) and no copies of chromosome 15 from their mother. Thus, the individuals with AS resulting from deletion or uniparental disomy are deficient for maternally derived genes from chromosomes 15. Deletions and uniparental disomy occur as de novo events during conception, so the recurrence risk to siblings is very low. Both of these genetic alterations, along with imprinting center defects (accounting for another 2%-5% of AS cases), cause an abnormal methylation pattern in the PWS/AS region of chromosome 15.

 

Another 10% of patients with AS have a documented mutation in the UBE3A gene located in the PW/AS region on chromosome 15. Mutations can either be maternally inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion or de novo. If the mutation is inherited, the risk to all future pregnancies is 50%. If testing of the affected individual's mother confirms she does not carry the mutation, the risk to future pregnancies is low but not zero, as cases of germline mosaicism have been reported. Individuals with a UBE3A mutation will display a normal methylation pattern.

 

No chromosomal or DNA abnormality has been identified in the remainder of clinically diagnosed AS patients (15%-25%). These patients may have genetic alterations that cannot be detected by current testing methods or alterations in as yet unidentified genes.

 

Initial studies to rule-out AS should include high-resolution cytogenetic analysis (CMS / Chromosome Analysis, for Congenital Disorders, Blood) to identify chromosome abnormalities that may have phenotypic overlap with AS, and methylation-sensitive, multiple ligation-dependent probe amplification (PWAS / Prader-Willi/Angelman Syndrome, Molecular Analysis) to identify deletions, duplications, and methylation defects. In cases where methylation analysis is negative, sequencing of the UBE3A gene may provide additional diagnostic information.

Reference Values Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.

An interpretive report will be provided.

Interpretation Provides information to assist in interpretation of the test results

All detected alterations are evaluated according to American College of Medical Genetics recommendations.(1) Variants are classified based on known, predicted, or possible pathogenicity and reported with interpretive comments detailing their potential or known significance.

Cautions Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances

A small percentage of individuals who are carriers or have a diagnosis of Angelman syndrome caused by a UBE3A gene mutation may have a mutation that is not identified by this method (eg, large genomic deletions, promoter mutations). The absence of a mutation, therefore, does not eliminate the possibility of positive carrier status or the diagnosis of Angelman syndrome. For carrier testing, it is important to first document the presence of a UBE3A gene mutation in an affected family member.

 

In some cases, DNA alterations of undetermined significance may be identified.

 

Rare polymorphisms exist that could lead to false-negative or false-positive results. If results obtained do not match the clinical findings, additional testing should be considered.

 

Test results should be interpreted in the context of clinical findings, family history, and other laboratory data. Errors in our interpretation of results may occur if information given is inaccurate or incomplete.

 

Methylation analysis (PWAS / Prader-Willi/Angelman Syndrome, Molecular Analysis) is recommended prior to UBE3A gene analysis.

Clinical Reference Recommendations for in-depth reading of a clinical nature

1. Richards S, Aziz N, Bale S, et al: Standards and guidelines for the interpretation of sequence variants: a joint consensus recommendation of the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics and the Association for Molecular Pathology. Genet Med 2015 May;17(5):405-424

2. Lossie AC, Whitney MM, Amidon D, et al: Distinct phenotypes distinguish the molecular classes of Angelman syndrome. J Med Genet 2001;38:834-845

3. Van Buggenhout G, Fryns JP: Angelman syndrome (AS, MIM 105830). Eur J Hum Genet 2009;17:1367-1373

4. Williams CA, Geaudet AL, Clayton-Smith J, et al: Angelman syndrome 2005: updated consensus for diagnostic criteria. Am J Med Genet 2006;140A:413-418

Special Instructions Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test